Compound Semiconductor

Brewer Science products are compatible with any substrate type and size.
Examples of the most commonly used substrates:
GaAsSiCSapphireSi
3″ to 150 mm 3″ to 150 mm 3″ to 150 mm 3″ to 150 mm
GaAs Image SiC Image Sapphire Image Si Image

Thin Wafer Handling

Brewer Science provides materials, processes, and equipment to support bonding and debonding of wafers or die to carrier substrates, enabling layer transfer and thin wafer handling. Brewer Science provides solutions that support these processes:

  • Wafer thinning
  • Layer transfer for laser lift-off (LLO)
  • Through-wafer via creation for interconnects

Brewer Science® temporary bonding materials provide excellent thermal stability at temperatures up to 220°C.

Materials:
  • WaferBOND® HT-10.10 thermal release material
  • WaferBOND® HT-10.10 Temporary bonding material

    WaferBOND® HT-10.10 temporary bonding material enables back-end-of-line processing of ultrathin wafers with standard semiconductor equipment

    With WaferBOND® HT materials, you can:
    • Process ultrathin wafers in temperatures up to 220°C
    • Protect the wafer edge from chipping
    • Protect circuitry from harsh chemical etchants
    • Provide a void-free interface for a smooth surface on the final thinned wafer
    Debonding with the WaferBOND® HT System

    The WaferBOND® HT coating is mechanically debonded by heating the processed wafer until the carrier can be slid from the ultrathin wafer.

    The WaferBOND® HT system supports high-throughput processes by enabling short debonding times. Debonding time is < 5 minutes.

    Stripping Process for WaferBOND® HT Materials
    • Residue-free vias with Brewer Science® WaferBOND® Remover
    • Reduced defects compared to existing technology

    Stripping Process for WaferBOND<sup>®</sup> HT Materials Stripping Process
    Vias: 0.7 µm wide, 0.7 µm deep

    Improve throughput of high-temperature ultrathin-wafer processing

    Excellent void-free bonding and high-temperature stability delivered by the WaferBOND® HT product series increases yields and provides greater process latitude.

    Additional benefits:
    • Excellent uniformity
    • Low defects
    • High throughput
    • Ability to be applied and removed with EVG® bonding and debonding equipment platform specifically designed to work with WaferBOND® HT materials.
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  • WaferBOND® CR-200 chemical release material
  • WaferBOND® CR-200 Temporary bonding material

    WaferBOND® CR-200 temporary bonding material enables back-end-of-line (BEOL) processing of ultrathin wafers with standard semiconductor equipment.

    WaferBOND® CR-200 material enables:

    • Processing of ultrathin wafers using standard lithographic, passivation, and metallization techniques and tooling
    • Creation of interconnects before or after thinning
    • Preservation of delicate structures on III-V wafers through low-stress demounting
    WaferBOND® CR-200 material is used for:
    • Wafer thinning
    • Thinned wafer processing
    • Interconnect formation
    • Low-stress demounting
    WaferBOND® CR-200 properties:
    • Low-viscosity solution in solvent to provide planarization during spinning
    • Spin-applied coatings 10 to 27 µm thick
    • Thermal stability to 220ºC in bonded wafer pair state
    • Resistance to acids, bases, and most solvents
    • Transparent coatings under visible and infrared (IR) light for either optical or IR backside alignment
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  • Cee® 1300DB
  • Cee® 1300DB Benchtop Debonder

    The Brewer Science® Cee® 1300DB debonder enables high-temperature slide-off debonding of thinned wafers in a laboratory setting. This tool permits development engineers to complete the final step of thinned full wafer processing in a confidential developmental setting. Internal small-scale prototyping capability may be used to accelerate product development cycles and improve time to market for new ultrathin wafer technologies.

    Benefits

    • Design permits in-house debonding of fully processed, proprietary ultrathin device wafers
    • Data logging feature provides detailed process feedback and record keeping
    • PC control allows virtually unlimited log storage
    • Small footprint permits installation flexibility

    Utility Requirements & Dimensions

    • Exhaust: 30 cfm
    • Electrical: 208 V, single phase, 50/60 Hz, 6500 W
    • Nitrogen or CDA: 70 psi, 1 cfm
    • Dimensions: 66.5" L x 32.5" D x 52.5" H (170 cm L x 82 cm D x 130 cm H)
    • Weight: 187 kg

    Other Specifications

    • Platen Maximum Temperature: 300°C
    • Substrate Sizes (round): 3 in, 100 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm
    • Constant Force Mode: 0 to 100 lb
    • Constant Speed Mode: 0 to 100 mm/s
    • Logging: Force, distance, temperature

    Brewer Science® Thin-Wafer-Handling Solutions

    Brewer Science® solutions for thin wafer handling combine materials, processes, and equipment:

    Chemical Release Technology Slide Debonding Technology ZoneBOND® Technology (Beta Stage)
    • Room temperature debonding capability
    • Higher throughput capability
    • Compatible with 100- to 300-mm wafers
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Wafer Processing Equipment

Brewer Science tools for compound semiconductor applications are the benchmark for low-volume or prototype production.

Cee® 1300CSXThermal Slide Debonder

Cee® 1300CSX benchtop debonder

The Brewer Science® Cee® 1300CSX thermal slide debonder enables high-temperature slide-off debonding of thinned compound semiconductor materials (GaAs, GaN, InP, and SiC) in a laboratory setting. This tool allows engineers to complete the final step of thinned full wafer processing in a developmental setting. Internal small-scale prototyping capability may be used to accelerate product development cycles and improve time to market for new compound semiconductor applications (high-power RF, LED, and solar).

Benefits

  • Design permits in-house debonding of fully processed, proprietary ultrathin device wafers
  • Enhanced data logging feature provides detailed process feedback and record keeping
  • PC control allows virtually unlimited log storage
  • Compact footprint permits installation flexibility

Tool Features

  • Network connection hardware/software: RJ-45 Ethernet & USB port
  • Precision lower platen z-position control (closed-loop control / feedback): ± 5 μm accuracy
  • Specialized insertion and extraction end effectors with vacuum function (foot pedal control)
  • Visual and audible light tree alarm
  • Enhanced light curtain operation for seamless operation
  • Continue abort override operation for "super user"
  • Optional exhaust chamber sensor (PC-monitored)
  • Optional hinged rear and side access panels

Utility Requirements & Dimensions

  • Exhaust: 20-30 cfm at 1" W.G. (4" OD exhaust duct)
  • Electrical: Voltage range 208-240 V, single phase, 50/60Hz, 3500 W
  • Power Requirements: 18 amps
  • Vacuum: -25" to -27" Hg (optimal vacuum: -27" Hg, (4.5 m3/h)
  • Nitrogen or CDA: 100 psi, 1 cfm
  • Optional Enclosure Purge: 3/8" push-to-connect (PTC tube) (20 psi)
  • Dimensions: 49" W × 39.5" D × 52.5" H (125 cm W × 100 cm D × 133 cm H)
  • Machine Weight: 415 lb (187 kg)
  • Shipping Weight: 1,280 lb

Other Specifications

  • Platen Maximum Temperature: 300°C
  • Substrate Sizes (round): 2 in, 3 in, 100 mm, 125 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm
  • Constant Force Mode: 0 to 100 lb (with maximum velocity limit of 100 mm/s)
  • Logging: Critical force, distance, velocity, upper/lower platen vacuum, upper/lower platen temperature, z-position, and entire process duration time
  • Excess Force Sensing: Failsafe error recovery
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ZoneBOND® Separation Tool

ZoneBOND separation tool

The Brewer Science® ZoneBOND® separation tool is designed for separating wafers that have been bonded using the ZoneBOND® system for thin wafer processing. The ZoneBOND® system enables use of materials that broaden the thermal budget while maintaining very-low-stress room temperature debonding. ZoneBOND

Benefits

  • Design that permits in-house debonding of fully processed proprietary ultrathin device wafers
  • Device wafer debonding on film frame
  • Onboard Windows®-based PC control for enhanced interface capabilities and connectivity
  • Compact design for minimized footprint
  • Full-color, 7-inch touch screen display
  • Enhanced force logging

Processed Wafer

Thinned wafer after being debonded with ZoneBOND™ separation tool
Thinned wafer after being debonded with
ZoneBOND® separation tool

Brewer Science® Thin-Wafer Handling Solutions

Brewer Science® solutions for thin wafer handling combines materials, processes and equipment:

Chemical Release Technology Slide Debonding Technology ZoneBOND® Technology (Beta Stage)
  • Room temperature debonding capability
  • Higher throughput capability
  • Compatible with 100- to 300-mm wafers
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Cee® 300MXD Megasonic Developer/Cleaner

Cee® 300MXD megasonic developer/cleaner shown with X-Pro package

The Brewer Science® Cee® 300MXD megasonic developer/cleaner combines an intuitive Windows®-based operating system, megasonic transducer (ProSys MegPie), extremely accurate spin speed control, and a high-horsepower drive for aggressive acceleration. The radial megasonic array is specifically designed to apply uniform acoustic energy to spinning substrates. The Cee® 300MXD tool features a complementing stream puddle dispense for supplying developer/cleaner solutions to the wafer surface. These features combine to ensure enhanced development resolution and to mitigate risk to fragile device structures. This tool is also capable of removing < 0.15-µm particles when configured for post-develop or chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) cleaning applications. The Cee® 300MXD developer/cleaner has a state-of-the-art user interface and has been designed specifically for wafer sizes ranging from 3 inches to 450 mm and for large LCD squares up to 14 in × 14 in.

Benefits

  • Onboard PC control for enhanced interface capabilities and connectivity Windows®-based operating system
  • Enhanced Lid-lift assist feature (gas spring opens ≥45°)
  • Stand alone cabinet and streamlined design for minimized footprint (Chemical Storage)
  • X-PRO Workstation integrates stand alone cabinet with an upper exhaust enclosure for creating mini-environment (monitors and data logs ambient conditions)
  • Flexible configuration for enhanced developing and cleaning applications for fragile device structures
  • Stand-alone cabinet and streamlined design for minimized footprint
  • Full-color, 7-inch touch screen display
  • Drive system (indirect) with highest horsepower in its class

Enhanced Process Applications*

  • Photoresist developing to produce high-aspect-ratio features for MEMS and advanced lithography (KrF/ArF)
  • Thick-film SU8 developing
  • Post-develop cleaning
  • Post-CMP cleaning
  • Photomask cleaning
  • Photoresist stripping
  • Metal lift-off (heated dispense optional)
  • Metal etching (heated dispense optional)

Dispense Options

Stream Dispense (Puddle)

This option uses a standard automated center dispense option with pressure cans. It functions by “streaming” the developer and DI water onto the top of the substrate.

The stream dispense option is:

  • Is very economical
  • Uses precision dispense valves with suckback control
  • Minimizes material usage
  • Is compatible with aqueous and solvent-based materials

Stream DI Water/Solvent Rinse

Brewer Science offers both topside and backside rinse options for cleaning applications. This dispense method is normally used in conjunction with a pressure dispense can or with a house DI water supply.

Specifications

Dimensions

  • Machine weight: 175 lb
  • Shipping weight: 450 lb
  • Cabinet dimensions: 35.75 in L × 29.0 in D × 59.50 in H

Programmability

  • PC-controlled Windows® operating system)
  • System capable of controlling ProSys MicroPulse host software for ProSys’s high-end Megasonic system.
  • User-friendly touch screen interface and display
  • 250,000 spin process programs
  • Virtually an unlimited number of steps per spin program
  • 0.1-second resolution for step times (time: 0-9,999.9 s/step)
  • Spin speeds of 0-6,000 rpm (optional 4000 rpm and 3000 rpm for additional acceleration capabilities)
  • Spin speed accelerations:
    0-30,000 rpm/s unloaded
    0-23,000 rpm/s 300-mm substrate
    0-3,000 rpm/s 350 mm × 6 mm round recessed spin chuck
    0-300 rpm/s 14 in × 14 in × .250 in photomask recessed chuck
  • Connectivity: USB/Ethernet port for communications for uploading/downloading process parameters with offline firmware standard (offline recipe number and steps unlimited)
  • Simultaneous trigger of multiple (up to 16) automated dispense nozzles
  • Bidirectional speed control/oscillating chuck
  • Iteration software (recipe looping)
  • Dispense or component outputs: 50
  • Security: Password protection option at no charge
  • In-process, dynamic speed acceleration control

Precision

  • Spin speed repeatability: < 0.2 rpm
  • Spin speed resolution: < 0.2 rpm
  • Substrate sizes: < 3 in to 450 mm round/14 in × 14 in square)

Reliability

  • Indirect drive system protects the spin motor from accidental contact with process chemical and solvents.
  • Vacuum and lid interlock standard
  • Industry-leading reliability and uptime
  • 1-year full warranty on parts and labor
  • Free live technical phone support for the life of the product
  • Application process assistance (live) for the life of the product

Bowl, Exhaust Hood, & Megasonic Transducer Design

  • All stainless steel construction
  • Drain and exhaust ports located in the bottom of bowl
  • Optional ETFE-coated spin bowl for material compatibility
  • Optional sapphire MegPie array for material compatibility
  • Optional Teflon®/polyethylene bowl non-disposable bowl liner
  • Optional exhaust hood (process chamber)
  • Optional fan filter unit (< Class 1 cleanliness inside process chamber)
  • Optional Teflon®/polyethylene splash ring
  • Optional nitrogen purge for an inert spin environment
  • Optional automatic N2 blow-off nozzle
  • Optional automatic drain separator (to separate aqueous and solvent-based fluids)

Utilities

  • Power requirements: 200-240 Volts A/C, 2350 Watts, 12.0 AMP
  • Drain port: 1 in OD
  • Exhaust port: 1.5 in OD
  • Recommended utilities: Vacuum: 20 in Hg, Exhaust 20-50 cfm
  • Auto-Dispense requirements: N2 or CDA: 70 psi (15 lpm)
  • Maximum flow for DI water for developer spray and backside rinse (if hard-plumbed): 80 psi, regulator to be supplied by purchaser

* - Patent-pending technology

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Protective Systems

High-brightness LED Protective coating processes that enable the development of MEMS, sensors, and compound semiconductor devices

The Brewer Science® ProTEK® series of the protection coatings enable simple, effective wet-etching processes for silicon compound semiconductors and glass

Physical Protection
Some fabrication steps (wafer thinning, through-wafer via creation, etc.) risk physical damage to the device side of the wafer. Brewer Science offers spin-on protective coatings that are scratch resistant, removeable, and stable at the conditions experienced during wafer processing. Customers experience improved yield and quality.

Light Extraction

Much of the light generated by an LED is reflected back into semiconducting material itself (internal reflection) and is lost as heat. The result is lower light output, and heat removal problems. There are two ways to improve light extraction:

Selective GaN Etching (GaN Roughening)

A rougher semiconductor surface disrupts internal reflection, allowing more light to escape. GaN is roughened using alkaline etchants such as KOH. Patterned, sacrificial coatings are needed to protect exposed metal traces during GaN roughening.

Materials: ProTEK® PSB - Photosensitive alkaline protective coating

ProTEK® PSB Coatings Photosensitive protective coating

ProTEK® PSB coating is a spin-on replacement for Silicon Nitride or Silicon Oxide wet etch masks. When applied in combination with ProTEK® B3 coating, it offers a full solution to alkaline wet etching. It can be applied after the CMOS circuitry is created and does not require mechanical clamps for protection.

With ProTEK® PSB coating, you can:

  • Apply an etch mask over CMOS structures due to low process temperatures
  • Reduce processing time because pattern transfer by dry etch is not required as it is with silicon nitride
  • Achieve higher throughput by using batch processing instead of a single-wafer DRIE process

Brewer Science® ProTEK® PSB coating is used in the creation of inverse pyramidal pits as discussed in SUN Microsystems' technical paper, "Active Demonstration of a Passively Self-Aligned, Multi-Chip Package using Proximity Communication in a Switching Fabric" presented at the 42nd Annual International Symposium on Microelectronics - IMAPS 2009, San Jose, December 1-5, 2009.

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High–Refractive Index Materials

Coatings having a refractive index from 1.7 to 2.0 will minimize internal reflection by bridging the large difference in refractive index between the semiconductor and the encapsulant materials. Such index matching techniques significantly improve light extraction.

Materials: OptiNDEX™ Coatings

High-Refractive Index Materials

High Refractive Index Coatings

Brewer Science has developed a new approach to the preparation of hybrid coating systems that avoids the problems associated with nanoparticle and sol-gel technologies. In our approach, the high index metal oxide component forms spontaneously during the curing process of the coating, leaving the polymer and metal oxide phases at a near molecular-level of interdispersion. The resulting coatings have refractive indices ranging from 1.65 to as high as 2.15 depending on the metal oxide loading. High refractive index polymer materials currently in development by Brewer Science might be used in applications such as:

  • Micro-lens arrays for image sensors
  • Cover layer for Optical Storage Disk
  • Photonic Crystals
  • Holographics
  • Waveguides
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Wet Etch Protection

During LED fabrication, the wafer is exposed to several acid and/or alkaline etch chemistries depending on the fabrication process flow. For example:

  • Silicon-based cavity submounts are fabricated by etching silicon in alkaline etchant solutions.
  • GaN or subsequent CVD passivation layers are etched or patterned using alkaline- or acid-based chemistries.

During these processes, the wafer and the sensitive features on the wafer must be protected from the harsh chemicals used for etching.

Brewer Science offers both blanket and photosensitive coatings for acid- or alkaline-based etch protection purposes.

Materials:

  • ProTEK® PSB - Photosensitive alkaline protective coating
  • ProTEK® PSB Coatings Photosensitive protective coating

    ProTEK® PSB coating is a spin-on replacement for Silicon Nitride or Silicon Oxide wet etch masks. When applied in combination with ProTEK® B3 coating, it offers a full solution to alkaline wet etching. It can be applied after the CMOS circuitry is created and does not require mechanical clamps for protection.

    With ProTEK® PSB coating, you can:

    • Apply an etch mask over CMOS structures due to low process temperatures
    • Reduce processing time because pattern transfer by dry etch is not required as it is with silicon nitride
    • Achieve higher throughput by using batch processing instead of a single-wafer DRIE process

    Brewer Science® ProTEK® PSB coating is used in the creation of inverse pyramidal pits as discussed in SUN Microsystems' technical paper, "Active Demonstration of a Passively Self-Aligned, Multi-Chip Package using Proximity Communication in a Switching Fabric" presented at the 42nd Annual International Symposium on Microelectronics - IMAPS 2009, San Jose, December 1-5, 2009.

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  • ProTEK® B3 coatings for alkaline etching
  • ProTEK® B3 Coatings Alkaline protective coating

    ProTEK<sup>®</sup> B3 coating

    ProTEK® B3 thin films are spin-applied polymeric coating systems that provide temporary wet-etch protection for CMOS MEMS circuitry during alkaline or acid etches. ProTEK® B materials offer protection from alkaline solutions such as KOH and TMAH for extended bath etches.

    Download Datasheet

    With ProTEK® B3, you can:
    • Protect delicate front-side circuitry during back-side bulk micromachining
    • Increase yield by minimizing front side damage caused by alkaline etch solution punch through during wet etch
    • Improve throughput by reducing labor and process time associated with mechanical clamps and increasing the number of wafers per etch bath
    Apply ProTEK® B3 coating instead of mechanical clamps to:
    • Protect CMOS circuitry or MEMS structures
    • Create SiN membranes last
    • Create through-silicon vias (TSVs)
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  • ProTEK® SR coating for dry etching
  • ProTEK® SR Coatings Scratch-resistant coating

    ProTEK® SR coating is a spin-applied polymeric coating designed to provide maximum protection for fragile, etch-sensitive circuitry placed in direct contact against the interior chuck of the etch chamber. ProTEK® SR coating offers durability and longevity against harsh backside DRIE processes typically utilized by the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuit (IC) industries.

    ProTEK® SR coating offers the following features:

    • Durable polymer coating protects delicate front-side circuitry during backside DRIE etching.
    • High film hardness (9H pencil) resists scratching.
    • High glass transition temperature (117°C) assures ProTEK® SR film will not stick to DRIE chuck.
    • Low outgassing in a vacuum assures no contamination of DRIE chamber or process.
    • Low film ion levels prevent contamination of wafers, tools, and handling equipment.
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Metal Deposition & Alternatives

High-temperature lift-off materials
Lift-off materials are designed to dissolve in standard lithography developer (TMAH) yet withstand a wide range of other conditions, including high-temperature processing, solvents, and some etchants. These materials enable patterned metal deposition processes, and can also be used to build free-standing microstructures such as air-bridges and cantilevers.

Carbon nanotube–based transparent conductive materials
Brewer Science provides carbon nanotube–based inks that can be jet printed, spray coated, or spin coated to create conductive traces or layers as an alternative to metal or metal oxide conductors. A range of purity grades and a variety of deposition options are available.